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Introduction to Pandas DataFrames

Pandas is a widely-used Python library for data manipulation and analysis. One of its core data structures is the DataFrame, which is a two-dimensional tabular data structure resembling a spreadsheet or a SQL table. DataFrames are incredibly versatile and provide a convenient way to work with structured data.

In this tutorial, we will delve into the world of Pandas DataFrames, covering their creation, manipulation, indexing, and common operations. We’ll explore several examples to illustrate these concepts.

Table of Contents

  1. Creating DataFrames
  • From dictionaries
  • From lists of lists
  • From CSV files
  1. Basic DataFrame Operations
  • Viewing and inspecting data
  • Selecting and filtering data
  • Adding and removing columns
  1. Indexing and Slicing
  • Indexing using labels and positions
  • Conditional selection
  1. Data Manipulation
  • Applying functions to columns
  • Grouping and aggregation
  1. Merging and Joining DataFrames
  • Concatenating DataFrames
  • Merging on columns
  1. Example 1: Analyzing Sales Data
  2. Example 2: Exploring Student Performance

1. Creating DataFrames

From dictionaries

One of the most common ways to create a DataFrame is from a dictionary. Each key in the dictionary becomes a column, and the corresponding values become the data in that column.

import pandas as pd

data = {
    'Name': ['Alice', 'Bob', 'Charlie'],
    'Age': [25, 30, 22],
    'City': ['New York', 'San Francisco', 'Los Angeles']

df = pd.DataFrame(data)

From lists of lists

You can also create a DataFrame from a list of lists. Each inner list represents a row in the DataFrame.

data = [
    ['Alice', 25, 'New York'],
    ['Bob', 30, 'San Francisco'],
    ['Charlie', 22, 'Los Angeles']

columns = ['Name', 'Age', 'City']

df = pd.DataFrame(data, columns=columns)

From CSV files

Pandas makes it easy to read data from CSV files and create DataFrames.

df = pd.read_csv('data.csv')

2. Basic DataFrame Operations

Viewing and inspecting data

You can use various methods to get an overview of your DataFrame.

# Display the first few rows

# Display the last few rows

# Get summary statistics

# Check the data types of each column

Selecting and filtering data

Pandas allows you to select specific columns or rows based on conditions.

# Select a single column
names = df['Name']

# Select multiple columns
subset = df[['Name', 'Age']]

# Filter rows based on a condition
young_people = df[df['Age'] < 30]

Adding and removing columns

You can add new columns to your DataFrame or remove existing ones.

# Add a new column
df['Gender'] = ['Female', 'Male', 'Male']

# Remove a column
df.drop('Gender', axis=1, inplace=True)

3. Indexing and Slicing

Indexing using labels and positions

Pandas offers flexible indexing capabilities.

# Access a column by label
ages = df['Age']

# Access a row by position
row_0 = df.iloc[0]

# Access a specific value by label and position
value =[1, 'Name']

Conditional selection

You can perform conditional selection on your DataFrame.

# Select rows where Age is greater than 25
selected_rows = df[df['Age'] > 25]

# Select rows where City is 'New York'
ny_residents = df[df['City'] == 'New York']

4. Data Manipulation

Applying functions to columns

You can apply functions to columns using the apply() method.

# Convert ages to a new category
def categorize_age(age):
    if age < 18:
        return 'Underage'
    elif age < 65:
        return 'Adult'
        return 'Senior'

df['Age_Category'] = df['Age'].apply(categorize_age)

Grouping and aggregation

Pandas allows you to group data and perform aggregation operations.

# Group data by Age_Category and calculate mean Age for each group
age_group_means = df.groupby('Age_Category')['Age'].mean()

# Calculate multiple aggregations
agg_results = df.groupby('City').agg({'Age': 'mean', 'Name': 'count'})

5. Merging and Joining DataFrames

Concatenating DataFrames

You can concatenate DataFrames along rows or columns.

# Concatenate along rows
df_concat = pd.concat([df1, df2])

# Concatenate along columns
df_concat = pd.concat([df1, df2], axis=1)

Merging on columns

Merging combines DataFrames based on common columns.

# Merge based on a common column
merged_df = pd.merge(df1, df2, on='ID')

6. Example 1: Analyzing Sales Data

Let’s consider an example of sales data analysis using Pandas DataFrames. Imagine you have a dataset with columns: Product, Price, Quantity, and Date.

# Read data from CSV file
sales_data = pd.read_csv('sales_data.csv')

# Calculate total revenue for each product
product_revenue = sales_data.groupby('Product')['Price'].sum()

# Find the most sold product
most_sold_product = sales_data.groupby('Product')['Quantity'].sum().idxmax()

# Calculate monthly revenue
sales_data['Date'] = pd.to_datetime(sales_data['Date'])
sales_data.set_index('Date', inplace=True)
monthly_revenue = sales_data.resample('M')['Price'].sum()

7. Example 2: Exploring Student Performance

Consider a scenario where you have a dataset containing student information and their exam scores. We will explore this dataset using Pandas.

# Read data from CSV file
student_data = pd.read_csv('student_scores.csv')

# Calculate average scores by subject
average_scores = student_data.groupby('Subject')['Score'].mean()

# Find students with scores above 90
top_students = student_data[student_data['Score'] > 90]

# Calculate correlation between study hours and scores
correlation = student_data['Hours'].corr(student_data['Score'])


Pandas DataFrames are a powerful tool for data manipulation, analysis, and exploration in Python. This tutorial has covered the basics of creating DataFrames, performing various operations on them, indexing and slicing, data manipulation, and merging/joining. With these fundamental skills, you’re well-equipped to dive into more advanced topics and real-world data analysis projects using Pandas. Remember to practice and experiment with different scenarios to fully grasp

the capabilities of Pandas DataFrames.

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